The Whisker Chronicles

Whiskers are also known as vibrissa, from the latin vibrare "to vibrate". Vibrissa are the specialized hairs on mammals and the bristlelike feathers near the mouths of many birds. Their resonant design is symbolic of the energies, good and bad, that are reverberating throughout the natural world. Every living thing is connected and, by birthright, deserves to exist.

The Legacy and Future of the Endangered Species Act

ESA_40th_Anniversary_Poster

Disclaimer:  Like any good legislation, The Endangered Species Act is a dynamic law with the intended beneficiaries constantly changing.  The data for this blog was obtained directly from the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service at time of writing and is subject to change.

I’m wrapping up Endangered Species Month at The Whisker Chronicles with some editorial comments.  Shortly after starting The Whisker Chronicles, I made a decision that I would no longer explain to readers why they should care about animals or the environment.  Generally, if you are reading my blog or any other conservation focused material, you do not require persuasion.  However, the main reason I adopted this policy is simple-if the species exists, by birthright it deserves protection.  The anthropocentric concept that all other life forms must yield to the insatiable demands of humans is flawed at best, selfish at worst.  How lazy are we, in the developed world, if we think that destruction is the only way to reach the best outcome for all involved?  I reject that concept and will not have the focus of my writing to be that of persuading anyone as to the direct human benefits received from plant and animal life.  I will mention the vicarious benefits when relevant, and only in context of an entire ecosystem within which humans are one of many residents.  There is another exception as well.  When the ravages of the developed world adversely affect humans in the undeveloped world, I will most assuredly elaborate on why we should care.

The Endangered Species Act has endured and survived many anthropocentric challengers over the past four decades.  No doubt, it will face and endure many more.  I challenge all who read this to be an outspoken supporter and keep an eye out for political news of threats from those who would have this highly successful and effective legislation dismembered and gutted.  Democracy requires the voice of the people to remain loud and strong, leaving no question about what we wish to protect and preserve.  You may determine how to contact your U.S. House representative here http://www.house.gov/representatives/find/ and your U.S. Senate representative here http://www.senate.gov/general/contact_information/senators_cfm.cfm.

The Endangered Species Act has its naysayers, but those are mostly people with financial interests who want to develop areas where the lands, and therefore the plant and animal residents, are protected.  Those people have not read the success stories of the Endangered Species Act because they do not care or they cannot comprehend the achievement of their goals without destruction of life.  So here is a summary of the depth and breadth of the Endangered Species Act, just in case some of those people stumble upon my blog. (Be sure to scroll all the way down and watch the U.S. Fish and Wildlife video as well.)

Total Number of Plant and Animal Species Currently Listed Under the Endangered Species Act:

Number of Threatened/Endangered Wildlife in the U.S. and   Foreign Species

1335

Number of Threatened/Endangered Plants in the U.S. and   Foreign Species

875

Threatened/Endangered Species in Other Countries

626

The First Species Listed as Endangered Were:

Mammals

  • Indiana Bat – Myotis sodalis
  • Delmarva Peninsula Fox      Squirrel – Sciurus niger      cinereus
  • Timber Wolf – Canis lupus      lycaon
  • Red Wolf – Canis niger
  • San Joaquin Kit Fox – Vulpes      macrotis mutica
  • Grizzly Bear – Ursus      horribilis
  • Black-footed Ferret – Mustela      nigripes
  • Florida Panther – Felis concolor      coryi
  • Caribbean Monk Seal – Monachus      tropicalis
  • Guadalupe Fur Seal – Arctocephalus      philippi townsendi
  • Florida Manatee or Florida      Sea Cow – Trichechus manatus latirostris
  • Key Deer – Odocoileus      virginianus clavium
  • Columbian White-tailed Deer –      Odocoileus virginianus leucurus
  • Sonoran Pronghorn – Antilocapra      americana      sonoriensis

Birds

  • Hawaiian Dark-Rumped Petrel –      Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis
  • Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel –      Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis
  • Hawaiian Goose (Nene) – Branta      sandvicensis
  • Aleutian Canada Goose – Branta      canadensis leucopareia
  • Tule White-Fronted Goose – Anser      albifrons gambelli
  • Laysan Duck – Anas      laysanensis
  • Hawaiian Duck (or Koloa) – Anas      wyvilliana
  • Mexican Duck – Anas diazi
  • California Condor – Gymnogyps      californianus
  • Florida Everglade Kite      (Florida Snail Kite) – Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus
  • Hawaiian Hawk (or Ii) – Buteo      solitarius
  • Southern Bald Eagle – Haliaeetus      t. leucocephalus
  • Attwater’s Greater      Prairie-Chicken – Tympanuchus cupido attwateri
  • Masked Bobwhite – Colinus      virginianus ridgwayi
  • Whooping Crane – Grus americana
  • Yuma Clapper Rail – Rallus      longirostris yumanensis
  • Hawaiian Common Gallinule – Gallinula      chloropus sandvicensis
  • Eskimo Curlew – Numenius      borealis
  • Puerto Rican Parrot – Amazona      vittata
  • American Ivory-billed      Woodpecker – Campephilus p. principalis
  • Hawaiian Crow ( or Alala) – Corvus      hawaiiensis
  • Small Kauai Thrush (Puaiohi)      – Phaeornia pulmeri
  • Nihoa Millerbird – Acrocephalus      kingi
  • Kauai Oo (or Oo Aa) – Moho      braccatus
  • Crested Honeycreeper (or      Akohekohe) – Palmeria dolei
  • Akiapolaau – Hemignathus      wilsoni
  • Kauai      Akialoa – Hemignathus procerus
  • Kauai      Nukupuu – Hemignathus lucidus hanapepe
  • Laysan Finchbill (Laysan      Finch) – Psittirostra c. cantans
  • Nihoa Finchbill (Nihoa Finch)      – Psittirostra cantans ultima
  • Ou – Psittirostra      psittacea
  • Palila – Psittirostra      bailleui
  • Maui      Parrotbill – Pseudonestor xanthophyrys
  • Bachman’s Warbler – Vermivora      bachmanii
  • Kirtland’s Warbler – Dendroica      kirtlandii
  • Dusky Seaside Sparrow – Ammospiza      nigrescens
  • Cape       Sable Sparrow – Ammospiza mirabilis

Reptiles and Amphibians:

  • American Alligator – Alligator      mississippiensis
  • Blunt-nosed Leopard Lizard – Crotaphytus      wislizenii silus
  • San Francisco Garter Snake – Thamnophis      sirtalis tetrataenia
  • Santa Cruz Long-toed Salamander – Ambystoma      macrodactylum croceum
  • Texas Blind Salamander – Typhlomolge      rathbuni
  • Black Toad, Inyo County Toad      – Bufo exsul

Fishes:

  • Shortnose sturgeon – Acipenser      brevirostrum
  • Longjaw Cisco – Coregonus      alpenae
  • Paiute Cutthroat Trout – Salmo      clarki seleniris
  • Greenback Cuttthroat Trout – Salmo      clarki stomias
  • Montana Westslope Cutthroat Trout – Salmo      clarki
  • Gila Trout – Oncorhynchus      gilae
  • Arizona (Apache) Trout – Oncorhynchus      apache
  • Desert Dace – Eremichthys      acros
  • Humpback Chub – Gila cypha
  • Little Colorado Spinedace – Lepidomeda      vittata
  • Moapa Dace – Moapa      coriacea
  • Colorado       River Squawfish – Ptychocheilus lucius
  • Cui-ui – Chasmistes cujus
  • Devils Hole Pupfish – Cyprinodon      diabolis
  • Commanche Springs Pupfish – Cyprinodon      elegan
  • Owens       River Pupfish – Cyprinodon radiosus
  • Pahrump Killifish – Empetrichythys      latos
  • Big Bend      Gambusia – Gambusia gaigei
  • Clear Creek Gambusia – Gambusia      heterochir
  • Gila Topminnow – Poeciliopsis      occidentalis
  • Maryland Darter – Etheostoma sellare
  • Blue Pike – Stizostedion      vitreum glaucum

Plant and Animal Species Currently Proposed for Listing (53):

Bat, Northern long-eared Myotis   septentrionalis
Beardtongue, Graham Penstemon   grahamii
Beardtongue, White River Penstemon   scariosus albifluvis
Bladderpod, Short’s Physaria   globosa
Brickell-bush,    Florida Brickellia   mosieri
Butterfly, Bartram’s hairstreak Strymon   acis bartrami
Butterfly, Florida   leafwing Anaea   troglodyta floridalis
Cockatoo, Philippine Cacatua   haematuropygia
Cockatoo, white Cacatua   alba
Cockatoo, yellow-crested Cacatua   sulphurea
Cuckoo, yellow-billed Coccyzus   americanus
Flax, Carter’s small-flowered Linum   carteri carteri
Frog, mountain yellow-legged Rana   muscosa
Frog, Oregon   spotted Rana   pretiosa
Frog, Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Rana   sierrae
gartersnake, northern Mexican Thamnophis   eques megalops
Glade cress, Kentucky Leavenworthia   exigua laciniata
Gladecress, [unnamed] Leavenworthia   crassa
hummingbird, Honduran emerald Amazilia   luciae
Ivesia, Webber Ivesia   webberi
Knot, red Calidris   canutus rufa
Lynx, Canada Lynx   canadensis
Macaw, great green Ara   ambiguus
Macaw, hyacinth Anodorhynchus   hyacinthinus
Macaw, military Ara   militaris
Macaw, scarlet Ara   macao
Monkeyflower, Vandenberg Mimulus   fremontii var. vandenbergensis
Mouse, New     Mexico meadow jumping Zapus   hudsonius luteus
No common name Agave   eggersiana
No common name Gonocalyx   concolor
No common name Varronia   rupicola
Peppergrass, Slickspot Lepidium   papilliferum
Petrel, Cook’s Pterodroma   cookii
Pocket gopher, Olympia Thomomys   mazama pugetensis
Pocket gopher, Roy Prairie Thomomys   mazama glacialis
Pocket gopher, Tenino Thomomys   mazama tumuli
Pocket gopher, Yelm Thomomys   mazama yelmensis
Prairie-chicken, lesser Tympanuchus   pallidicinctus
Rockcress,    Georgia Arabis   georgiana
Sage-grouse, greater Centrocercus   urophasianus
sage-grouse, Gunnison Centrocercus   minimus
Salamander, Georgetown Eurycea   naufragia
Salamander, Salado Eurycea   chisholmensis
Shiner, sharpnose Notropis   oxyrhynchus
Shiner, smalleye Notropis   buccula
Skipper, Dakota Hesperia   dacotae
skipperling, Poweshiek Oarisma   poweshiek
Snake, narrow-headed garter Thamnophis   rufipunctatus
Sucker, Zuni bluehead Catostomus   discobolus yarrowi
Sunflower, whorled Helianthus   verticillatus
toad, Yosemite Anaxyrus   canorus
Wolf, Mexican gray Canis   lupus baileyi
Wolverine, North American Gulo   gulo luscus

Plant and Animal Species that are Candidates for Listing (145): 

Aiea Nothocestrum   latifolium
Amphipod, Kenk’s Stygobromus   kenki
`Anunu Sicyos   macrophyllus
Aster,    Georgia Symphyotrichum   georgianum
Bacora, marron Solanum   conocarpum
Bat, Pacific sheath-tailed Emballonura   semicaudata rotensis
Bat, Pacific sheath-tailed Emballonura   semicaudata semicaudata
Buckwheat, Churchill    Narrows Eriogonum   diatomaceum
Buckwheat, Frisco Eriogonum   soredium
buckwheat, Las     Vegas Eriogonum   corymbosum var. nilesii
Buckwheat, Red    Mountain Eriogonum   kelloggii
Bully, Everglades Sideroxylon   reclinatum ssp. austrofloridense
Butterfly, Hermes copper Lycaena   hermes
Butterfly, Mariana eight-spot Hypolimnas   octocula mariannensis
Butterfly, Mariana wandering Vagrans   egistina
Butterfly, Puerto Rico   harlequin Atlantea   tulita
Caddisfly, Sequatchie Glyphopsyche   sequatchie
Cave beetle, Baker Station Pseudanophthalmus   insularis
Cave beetle, Clifton Pseudanophthalmus   caecus
Cave beetle, coleman Pseudanophthalmus   colemanensis
Cave beetle, Fowler’s Pseudanophthalmus   fowlerae
Cave beetle, icebox Pseudanophthalmus   frigidus
Cave beetle, Indian Grave Point (=Soothsayer) Pseudanophthalmus   tiresias
Cave beetle, inquirer Pseudanophthalmus   inquisitor
Cave beetle, Louisville Pseudanophthalmus   troglodytes
Cave beetle, Nobletts Pseudanophthalmus   paulus
Cave beetle, Tatum Pseudanophthalmus   parvus
Chipmunk, Penasco least Tamias   minimus atristriatus
Chub, headwater Gila   nigra
Chub, least Iotichthys   phlegethontis
Chub, roundtail Gila   robusta
clover, Frisco Trifolium   friscanum
Crabgrass, Florida   pineland Digitaria   pauciflora
Crake, spotless Porzana   tabuensis
Cress, Tahoe yellow Rorippa   subumbellata
Damselfly, orangeblack Hawaiian Megalagrion   xanthomelas
Darter, Arkansas Etheostoma   cragini
Darter, Cumberland   arrow Etheostoma   sagitta
Darter, Kentucky   arrow Etheostoma   spilotum
Darter, Pearl Percina   aurora
`Ena`ena Pseudognaphalium   (=Gnaphalium) sandwicensium var. molokaiense
Fatmucket,    Texas Lampsilis   bracteata
Fawnsfoot,    Texas Truncilla   macrodon
fern, Florida   bristle Trichomanes   punctatum ssp. floridanum
fern, Maui Microlepia   strigosa var. mauiensis
Fescue, Guadalupe Festuca   ligulata
Fisher Martes   pennanti
Flax, sand Linum   arenicola
Frog, Columbia   spotted Rana   luteiventris
Frog, relict leopard Lithobates   onca
Grayling, arctic Thymallus   arcticus
Ground-Dove, Friendly Gallicolumba   stairi
Holei Ochrosia   haleakalae
Hornshell,    Texas Popenaias   popei
Kampua`a Hedyotis   fluviatilis
Kolea Myrsine   fosbergii
Loon, yellow-billed Gavia   adamsii
maiden fern, Boyds Cyclosorus   boydiae
Makou Ranunculus   hawaiensis
Makou Ranunculus   mauiensis
Ma`oli`oli Schiedea   pubescens
Mariposa lily, Siskiyou Calochortus   persistens
Massasauga (=rattlesnake), eastern Sistrurus   catenatus
Meshweaver, Warton cave Cicurina   wartoni
Milkvetch, Goose     Creek Astragalus   anserinus
Milkvetch, Packard’s Astragalus   cusickii var. packardiae
Milk-vetch, Schmoll Astragalus   schmolliae
Milkvetch, skiff Astragalus   microcymbus
milkvetch, Sleeping Ute Astragalus   tortipes
Moth, rattlesnake-master borer Papaipema   eryngii
Mudalia, black Elimia   melanoides
Murrelet, Xantus’s Synthliboramphus   hypoleucus
Nanu Gardenia   remyi
Naucorid bug (=Furnace Creek), Nevares Spring Ambrysus   funebris
Newt, striped Notophthalmus   perstriatus
No common name Festuca   hawaiiensis
`Ohe Joinvillea   ascendens ascendens
Orb, golden Quadrula   aurea
Orchid, white fringeless Platanthera   integrilabia
Panic grass, Hirst Brothers’ Dichanthelium   (=Panicum) hirstii
Parrot, red-crowned Amazona   viridigenalis
Pea, Big Pine partridge Chamaecrista   lineata keyensis
Peppergrass, Ostler’s Lepidium   ostleri
Pimpleback, smooth Quadrula   houstonensis
Pimpleback,    Texas Quadrula   petrina
Pine, whitebark Pinus   albicaulis
Pipit, Sprague’s Anthus   spragueii
Popolo Solanum   nelsonii
Prairie-clover,    Florida Dalea   carthagenensis floridana
Rabbit, New England   cottontail Sylvilagus   transitionalis
Ramshorn, magnificent Planorbella   magnifica
Redhorse, Sicklefin Moxostoma   sp.
Reedgrass, Maui Calamagrostis   expansa
Riffle beetle, Stephan’s Heterelmis   stephani
Rockcress, Fremont    County Boechera   pusilla
Sage-grouse, greater Centrocercus   urophasianus
Sage-grouse, greater Centrocercus   urophasianus
Salamander, Berry    Cave Gyrinophilus   gulolineatus
Sandmat, pineland Chamaesyce   deltoidea pinetorum
Sand-verbena, Ramshaw Meadows Abronia   alpina
Shrimp, anchialine pool Metabetaeus   lohena
Shrimp, anchialine pool Palaemonella   burnsi
Shrimp, anchialine pool Procaris   hawaiana
silverbush, Blodgett’s Argythamnia   blodgettii
Smelt, longfin, San     FranciscoBay   delta population Spirinchus   thaleichthys
Snail, fragile tree Samoana   fragilis
Snail, Guam tree Partula   radiolata
Snail, Humped tree Partula   gibba
Snail, Langford’s tree Partula   langfordi
snail, sisi Ostodes   strigatus
Snail, Tutuila tree Eua   zebrina
Snake, black pine Pituophis   melanoleucus lodingi
Snake, Louisiana   pine Pituophis   ruthveni
Snake, Tucson   shovel-nosed Chionactis   occipitalis klauberi
Snowfly, Arapahoe Capnia   arapahoe
Spineflower, San Fernando Valley Chorizanthe   parryi var. fernandina
Springsnail, Huachuca Pyrgulopsis   thompsoni
Springsnail, Page Pyrgulopsis   morrisoni
Spurge, wedge Chamaesyce   deltoidea serpyllum
Squirrel, Southern Idaho   ground Urocitellus   endemicus
Squirrel, Washington   ground Urocitellus   washingtoni
Stonecrop, Red    Mountain Sedum   eastwoodiae
Stonefly, meltwater lednian Lednia   tumana
Storm-petrel, band-rumped Oceanodroma   castro
Thistle, Wright’s marsh Cirsium   wrightii
Tiger beetle, highlands Cicindela   highlandensis
Tortoise, gopher Gopherus   polyphemus
Tortoise, Sonoran desert Gopherus   morafkai
Treefrog,    Arizona Hyla   wrightorum
Trout, Rio Grande   cutthroat Oncorhynchus   clarkii virginalis
Turtle, Sonoyta mud Kinosternon   sonoriense longifemorale
Twistflower, bracted Streptanthus   bracteatus
vole, red tree Arborimus   longicaudus
Walrus, Pacific Odobenus   rosmarus ssp. divergens
Warbler, elfin-woods Dendroica   angelae
Waterdog, black warrior (=Sipsey Fork) Necturus   alabamensis
Wawae`iole Huperzia   (=Phlegmariurus) stemmermanniae
Wormwood, Northern Artemisia   campestris var. wormskioldii
Yellow-faced bee, anthricinan Hylaeus   anthracinus
Yellow-faced bee, assimulans Hylaeus   assimulans
Yellow-faced bee, easy Hylaeus   facilis
yellow-faced bee, Hawaiian Hylaeus   kuakea
yellow-faced bee, Hawaiian Hylaeus   longiceps
yellow-faced bee, Hawaiian Hylaeus   mana
Yellow-faced bee, hilaris Hylaeus   hilaris

 Plant and Animal Species That Have Been Delisted and Why:  

Date Species
First Listed

Date Delisted

Species Name

Reason Delisted

05/18/1984 06/19/2006 Agave, Arizona     (Agave   arizonica) Original Data in Error – Not a listable entity
07/27/1979 06/04/1987 Alligator, American   Entire  (Alligator   mississippiensis) Recovered
12/06/1979 10/01/2003 Barberry, Truckee   (Berberis   (=Mahonia) sonnei) Original Data in Error – Taxonomic revision
02/17/1984 02/06/1996 Bidens, cuneate   (Bidens   cuneata) Original Data in Error – Taxonomic revision
08/27/1984 02/23/2004 Broadbill, Guam   (Myiagra   freycineti) Extinct
04/28/1976 08/31/1984 Butterfly, Bahama swallowtail   (Heraclides   andraemon bonhotei) Original Data in Error – Act amendment
11/28/1979 06/24/1999 Cactus, Lloyd’s hedgehog   (Echinocereus   lloydii) Original Data in Error – Taxonomic revision
12/07/1979 09/22/1993 Cactus, spineless hedgehog   (Echinocereus   triglochidiatus var. inermis) Original Data in Error – Not a listable entity
09/17/1980 08/27/2002 Cinquefoil, Robbins’   (Potentilla   robbinsiana) Recovered
03/11/1967 09/02/1983 Cisco, longjaw   (Coregonus   alpenae) Extinct
07/05/1979 09/02/2011 Coneflower, Tennessee   purple   (Echinacea   tennesseensis) Recovered
06/02/1970 05/23/2012 Crocodile, Morelet’s     (Crocodylus   moreletii) Recovered
09/05/1985 02/18/2011 Daisy, Maguire   (Erigeron   maguirei) Recovered
07/24/2003 07/24/2003 Deer, Columbian white-tailed   Douglas County   DPS  (Odocoileus   virginianus leucurus) Recovered
06/02/1970 09/12/1985 Dove, Palau ground   (Gallicolumba   canifrons) Recovered
03/11/1967 07/25/1978 Duck, Mexican   U.S.A. only  (Anas   diazi) Original Data in Error – Taxonomic revision
03/11/1967 08/08/2007 Eagle, bald   lower 48 States  (Haliaeetus   leucocephalus) Recovered
06/02/1970 08/25/1999 Falcon, American peregrine   (Falco   peregrinus anatum) Recovered
06/02/1970 10/05/1994 Falcon, Arctic peregrine   (Falco   peregrinus tundrius) Recovered
06/02/1970 09/12/1985 Flycatcher,    Palau fantail     (Rhipidura   lepida) Recovered
04/30/1980 12/04/1987 Gambusia, Amistad   (Gambusia   amistadensis) Extinct
04/29/1986 06/18/1993 Globeberry, Tumamoc   (Tumamoca   macdougalii) Original Data in Error – New information discovered
03/11/1967 03/20/2001 Goose, Aleutian Canada   (Branta   canadensis leucopareia) Recovered
10/11/1979 11/27/1989 Hedgehog cactus, purple-spined   (Echinocereus   engelmannii var. purpureus) Original Data in Error – Taxonomic revision
12/30/1974 03/09/1995 Kangaroo, eastern gray   (Macropus   giganteus) Recovered
12/30/1974 03/09/1995 Kangaroo, red   (Macropus   rufus) Recovered
12/30/1974 03/09/1995 Kangaroo, western gray   (Macropus   fuliginosus) Recovered
12/08/1977 02/23/2004 Mallard, Mariana   (Anas   oustaleti) Extinct
05/27/1978 09/14/1989 Milk-vetch, Rydberg   (Astragalus   perianus) Original Data in Error – New information discovered
06/02/1970 09/21/2004 Monarch, Tinian (old   world flycatcher)   (Monarcha   takatsukasae) Recovered
06/02/1970 09/12/1985 Owl, Palau   (Pyrroglaux   podargina) Recovered
06/14/1976 01/09/1984 Pearlymussel, Sampson’s   (Epioblasma   sampsoni) Extinct
06/02/1970 12/17/2009 Pelican, brown   except U.S. Atlantic coast, FL, AL  (Pelecanus   occidentalis) Recovered
06/02/1970 02/04/1985 Pelican, brown   U.S. Atlantic coast, FL, AL  (Pelecanus   occidentalis) Recovered
07/13/1982 09/22/1993 Pennyroyal, Mckittrick   (Hedeoma   apiculatum) Original Data in Error – New information discovered
03/11/1967 09/02/1983 Pike, blue   (Stizostedion   vitreum glaucum) Extinct
10/13/1970 01/15/1982 Pupfish, Tecopa   (Cyprinodon   nevadensis calidae) Extinct
03/10/1997 04/14/2006 Pygmy-owl, cactus ferruginous   AZ pop.  (Glaucidium   brasilianum cactorum) Original Data in Error – Not a listable entity
04/10/1979 10/28/2008 Seal, Caribbean monk     (Monachus   tropicalis) Extinct
04/17/1989 06/14/2013 Shagreen, Magazine Mountain   Entire  (Mesodon   magazinensis) Recovered
09/26/1986 02/28/2000 Shrew, Dismal Swamp southeastern     (Sorex   longirostris fisheri) Original Data in Error – New information discovered
12/14/1992 09/24/2010 Snail, Utah   valvata   (Valvata   utahensis) Original Data in Error – New information discovered
09/03/1986 11/28/2011 Snake, Concho water     (Nerodia   paucimaculata) Recovered
08/30/1999 09/15/2011 Snake, Lake Erie water     subspecies range clarified  (Nerodia   sipedon insularum) Recovered
03/11/1967 12/12/1990 Sparrow, dusky seaside   (Ammodramus   maritimus nigrescens) Extinct
06/04/1973 10/12/1983 Sparrow, Santa     Barbara song   (Melospiza   melodia graminea) Extinct
12/14/1992 09/05/2007 Springsnail,    Idaho   (Pyrgulopsis   idahoensis) Original Data in Error – Taxonomic revision
07/31/1985 03/04/2013 Squirrel, Virginia   northern flying   Entire  (Glaucomys   sabrinus fuscus) Recovered
05/22/1997 08/18/2005 Sunflower, Eggert’s   (Helianthus   eggertii) Recovered
12/18/1977 11/22/1983 Treefrog, pine barrens   FL pop.  (Hyla   andersonii) Original Data in Error – New information discovered
09/13/1996 04/26/2000 Trout, coastal cutthroat   Umpqua R.  (Oncorhynchus   clarkii clarkii) Original Data in Error – Taxonomic revision
06/14/1976 02/29/1984 Turtle, Indian flap-shelled   (Lissemys   punctata punctata) Original Data in Error – Erroneous data
06/16/1994 06/16/1994 Whale, gray   except where listed  (Eschrichtius   robustus) Recovered
04/10/1978 01/27/2012 Wolf, gray   MN  (Canis   lupus) Recovered
01/27/2012 01/27/2012 Wolf, gray   Western Great Lakes DPS  (Canis   lupus) Recovered
05/05/2011 05/05/2011 Wolf, gray   Northern Rocky Mountain DPS (delisted,   except WY)  (Canis   lupus) Recovered
05/05/2011 09/30/2012 Wolf, gray   WY, EXPN population  (Canis   lupus) Recovered
07/19/1990 10/07/2003 Woolly-star, Hoover’s     (Eriastrum   hooveri) Recovered

Plant and Animal Species That Have Been Reclassified:

T Argali Kyrgyzstan,   Mongolia, Tajikistan (Ovis   ammon) 06/23/1992: E->T
T Birch, Virginia   round-leaf (Betula   uber) 11/16/1994: E->T
T Bison, wood Entire (Bison   bison athabascae) 05/03/2012: E->T
T bladderpod, Missouri   (Physaria   filiformis) 10/15/2003: E->T
E Butterfly, Schaus swallowtail Entire (Heraclides   aristodemus ponceanus) 08/31/1984: T->E
T Cactus, Siler pincushion (Pediocactus   (=Echinocactus,=Utahia) sileri) 12/27/1993: E->T
T Caiman, broad-snouted Argentina DPS (Caiman   latirostris) 06/25/2013: E->T
T Caiman, Yacare Entire (Caiman   yacare) 05/04/2000: E->T
E Cavefish, Alabama Entire (Speoplatyrhinus   poulsoni) 09/28/1988: T->E
E Chimpanzee Wild (Pan   troglodytes) 03/12/1990: T->E
E Chimpanzee, pygmy Entire (Pan   paniscus) 03/12/1990: T->E
T Chub, Oregon Entire (Oregonichthys   crameri) 04/23/2010: E->T
T Crocodile, American FL pop. (Crocodylus   acutus) 03/20/2007: E->T
T Crocodile, Nile Entire (Crocodylus   niloticus) 09/30/1988: E->T , 09/23/1993: E->T , 06/17/1987:   E->T
T Crocodile, saltwater Australia (Crocodylus   porosus) 06/24/1996: E->T
T Darter, Okaloosa Entire (Etheostoma   okaloosae) 04/01/2011: E->T
T Darter, snail Entire (Percina   tanasi) 07/05/1984: E->T
T Four-o’clock, MacFarlane’s (Mirabilis   macfarlanei) 03/15/1996: E->T
T Indian paintbrush, San Clemente    Island (Castilleja   grisea) 07/26/2013: E->T
T Leopard Gabon   to Kenya   & southward (Panthera   pardus) 01/28/1982: E->T
T Lotus, San Clemente Island   (Acmispon   dendroideus var. traskiae (=Lotus d. ssp. traskiae)) 07/26/2013: E->T
E Minnow, loach Entire (Tiaroga   cobitis) 02/23/2012: T->E
T Pearlshell, Louisiana Entire (Margaritifera   hembeli) 09/24/1993: E->T
T Pogonia, small whorled (Isotria   medeoloides) 10/06/1994: E->T
T Prairie dog,    UtahU.S.A.(UT)   (Cynomys   parvidens) 05/29/1984: E->T
E Salmon, chinook Sacramento River   winter-run ESU (Oncorhynchus   (=Salmo) tshawytscha) 03/23/1994: T->E
T Salmon, chinook Snake River   fall-run ESU (Oncorhynchus   (=Salmo) tshawytscha) 11/02/1994: T->E
T Salmon, chinook Snake River   spring/summer-run ESU (Oncorhynchus   (=Salmo) tshawytscha) 11/02/1994: T->E
E Sea-lion, Steller western pop. (Eumetopias   jubatus) 06/05/1997: T->E , 05/05/1997: T->E
T Skullcap, large-flowered (Scutellaria   montana) 01/14/2002: E->T
T Snail, tulotoma Entire (Tulotoma   magnifica) 06/02/2011: E->T
E Spikedace Entire (Meda   fulgida) 02/23/2012: T->E
T Steelhead upper Columbia R. Basin (Oncorhynchus   (=Salmo) mykiss) 01/05/2006: E->T
T Trout, Apache Entire (Oncorhynchus   apache) 07/16/1975: E->T
T Trout, Gila Entire (Oncorhynchus   gilae) 07/18/2006: E->T
T trout, Greenback Cutthroat Entire (Oncorhynchus   clarki stomias) 04/18/1978: E->T
T Trout, Lahontan cutthroat Entire (Oncorhynchus   clarkii henshawi) 07/16/1975: E->T
T Trout, Paiute cutthroat Entire (Oncorhynchus   clarkii seleniris) 07/16/1975: E->T
E Wolf, gray U.S.A.: All of AL, AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA,   KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NV, NY, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN,   VA, VT and WV; those portions of AZ, NM, and TX not included in an   experimental population; and portions of IA, IN, IL, ND, OH, OR, SD, UT, and   WA. Mexico.   (Canis   lupus) 03/09/1978: T->E

The United States Fish and Wildlife has produced a short video summary of the success of the Endangered Species Act, legislation that I personally hope will continue to extend its embrace to a multitude of plant and animals species for decades to come.

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